India is not just the land of religious and cultural concoctions, a unique mix of ethnicity and modernity, a blend of simplicity and elaborateness, co-existing of patriotism and welcoming the alien traditions, but it is also the land that has witnessed a long and rich history that has given an opportunity for the country to achieve multiple landmarks in every era.
Ancient history of India includes the Prehistoric era that dates back to
2,00,000 BC and continued till about 2500 BC and the Indus Valley
Civilization, when the first human settlements sprung up. Indus Valley
Civilization flourished till the 1900 BC, declining due to tectonic shifts
and its resultant conditions. The Vedic Period that continued till 600 BC,
saw the emergence of many kingdoms in the Indo-Gangetic plains that
contributed a lot in shaping the Indian culture, beliefs and lifestyle
patterns. It was in the later Vedic Age that Hinduism started taking shape
as a full fledged religion and the society was categorized into Brahmin,
Kshatria, Vaishya and Shudra.
In the epic age, the revered Hindu epics and important literatures were
established that shaped the values and beliefs of Indian society. The epics
created during this period were Ramayana, Mahabharata and Upanishads. In the
pre-historic age, India witnessed many invasions and domination of several
dynasties like the Persian and Greek invasions, rule of the Magadha Empire,
Maurya Empire, Pallava Dynasty, Chalukya and Chola Dynasties and the Gupta
Dynasty which is also known as the Golden era.
The medieval history of India is commenced with the Rajput rule and is
marked by foreign invasions and dreaded battles. India's natural resources
were largely exploited and the immensely rich architectural reserves were
dilapidated by Turkish and Islamic Invasions. The Slave dynasty under
Qutub-ud-din-Aibak and Iltutmish, the Khilji rulers, the Sayyids, the Lodhis
and the Tughlaqs took turns to rule over the incredible country.
With the fall of the Lodhi dynasty emerged the Mughal Empire, that
commanded its supremacy over the whole of India. Under the Mughal rule, many
architectural gems came into being, that include the forts and palaces in
the northern and western parts of the country, Taj Mahal being the best
representation of the Mughal architectural adeptness. Meanwhile, south saw
the dynasties of Chalukyas, Pallavas, Hoyasalas, Cholas, Kalchuris,
Rashtrakutas, Yadhavas and the Vijaynagar kingdom.
The Modern History of India began when the discovery of convenient
sea-routes to the Asian sub-continent led to the development of profitable
trade routes to India and its neighboring countries. This resulted in the
advent of European empires like the Portuguese, Dutch and the British in
India, that paved their way to win over the abundant agricultural resources
The Britishers gained strength in the country through treaties and
agreements with the ruling kingdoms within the country and manipulative
policies such as 'divide and rule'. The excessive domination and
unacceptable policies led to resentment among many Indians, who revolted
against the empire to gain their independence from the ruthless British
During this time period, many religions emerged in India, along with
Hinduism. Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism were some of them. India witnessed
the partition of Bangladesh and Pakistan and the re framing of the Indian
boundaries to emerge as the India of today. The constitution of India was
framed in 1950, by the country's leaders, after rigorous thought and careful
planning. India became a democratic, secular and a sovereign state, where
people feel free to use their rights, obey their duties and express love and
respect for their nation, with dignity.